A citation is a reference to a source (author, book, article, etc.) from which a direct quote or information was taken that includes enough information to locate the original source. A book citation would include: author, title, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. An article citation would include author, title, name of periodical, date, and page reference. Citations may be found in a research paper, a periodical index or in a catalog. A compilation of citations is usually called references, works cited, bibliographies or endnotes depending on the style guide (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.).
The MLA citation style is used by most Humanities disciplines.
MLA style format for citing an article in journal that uses both volume and issue numbers:
Cooney, Brian C. “Considering Robinson Crusoe’s ‘Liberty of Conscience’
in an Age of Terror.” College English, vol. 69, no. 3, Jan. 2007,
MLA style format for citing an article in journal that numbers all the issues in sequence:
Kafka, Ben. "The Demon of Writing: Paperwork, Public Safety, and the Reign of Terror." Representations, no. 98, 2007, pp. 1-24.
MLA style format for citing a book:
Anderson, Curtis. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. Hyperion, 2006.
We have a copy of the book in the Reading Room. See information below:
Though scientific publications document sources in similar ways, the details of presenting source information vary from journal to journal. Most biologists, zoologists, earth scientists, geneticists, and other scientists use one of three systems of documentation specified in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.
CSE Style for a print book:
After the author(s) and title, give the place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the date of publication:
Melchias G. Biodiversity and conservation. Enfield (NH): Science; 2001.
CSE Style for an online article from a database:
Begin with the name of the author and the title of the article. Include the name of the journal, followed by the word “Internet” in brackets. Give the date of publication or the copyright date. Include in brackets the date the article was updated or modified, if any, and the date you accessed it, followed by a semicolon. Then provide the volume, issue, and page numbers. If the article is unpaginated, include in brackets the number or an estimated number of pages, screens, paragraphs, lines, or bytes. Write “Available from:” and the URL.
Isaacs FJ, Blake WJ, Collins JJ. Signal processing in single cells. Science [Internet]. 2005 Mar 25 [cited 2009 Jun 17];307(5717): 1886-1888. Available from: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/307/5717/1886
APA citation style is used by many Physical and Social Science disciplines. Here are two examples of the style.
APA format for citing an article in journal:
APA format for citing a book:
The library owns several copies of the manual. Click on the link below to find out where an available copy is located.